= BMW 3 Series (E46) =
The BMW E46 is the fourth generation of the BMW 3 Series range of
compact executive cars, which was produced from 1997 to 2006. The body
styles of the range are:
* 4-door sedan/saloon
* 2-door coupé
* 2-door convertible
* 5-door wagon/estate (marketed as "Touring")
* 3-door hatchback ('see BMW 3 Series Compact')
All-wheel drive, which was last available in the 3 Series in 1991, was
reintroduced for the E46 on the 325xi, 330xi and 330xd models. The E46
was the first 3 Series to be available with an engine using
Valvetronic (variable valve lift). Various electronic features were
also introduced to the 3 Series in the E46 generation, including
satellite navigation, electronic brake-force distribution,
rain-sensing wipers and LED tail-lights.
The E46 M3 is powered by the BMW S54 inline-six engine with either a
6-speed manual or a 6-speed SMG-II automated manual transmission. The
M3 was introduced in late 2000 and was produced in coupé and
convertible body styles only.
Following the introduction of the E90 3 Series sedans in late 2004,
the E46 began to be phased out. However the E46 coupé and convertible
body styles remained in production until August 2006.
In 1993, the development programme for the E46 began under chief
engineer Wolfgang Ziebart and head of R&D Wolfgang Reitzle. In
late 1993, design work began under chief designer Chris Bangle and
continued into 1995. In May 1995, the general exterior design of the
E46 by Erik Goplen of DesignworksUSA was approved and as a result
DesignworksUSA was contracted by BMW to work alongside BMW Group's
in-house design team to create the exterior bodywork for the 3 Series
range in February 1996. The design team put an emphasis on improving
aerodynamics and increasing the car's aggressive stance. Design
patents were filed in Germany on 16 July 1997 and in the US on 16
Chris Bangle and Dr. Wolfgang Reitzle (BMW Head of R&D) were
responsible through 1995 for the production sedan's exterior, as
evident in the 1997 design patent. Production development of the sedan
took 24 months following design freeze and was 31 months from
executive board styling approval in 1995 to its start of series
production in December 1997. Erik Goplen designed the production
coupé, convertible and station wagon during 1996-1997. The E46 sedan
was unveiled via press release on 11 November 1997 and was launched on
the market at the end of April 1998 with customer deliveries.
File:1998-2001 BMW 328i (E46) sedan (2011-07-17) 02.jpg|sedan/saloon
File:1999-2000 BMW 323Ci (E46) coupe 01.jpg|coupé
File:BMW E46 Cabrio rear 20070914.jpg|convertible
File:BMW 320d Touring E46 (1998-2001) rear MJ.JPG|wagon/estate
File:BMW Series3 last red v.jpg|BMW 3 series compact
Factory specifications are listed below.Sources:
Coupe and convertible models were badged as "Ci", and all-wheel drive
models were badged as "xi".
Model!! Years !! Engine !! Power !! Torque
| rowspan="4" | **316i** || 1999-2001 || 1.9 L M43 inline-4 || 77
|2001 - 2004 1.6 L N40 inline-4 86 kW 150 Nm
2001-2004 1.8 L N42 inline-4 85 kW 175 Nm
2004-2005 1.8 L N46 inline-4 85 kW 175 Nm
| rowspan=3| **318i** || 1998-2001 || 1.9 L M43 inline-4 ||87
2001-2005 2.0 L N42 inline-4 107 kW 200 Nm
2003-2006 2.0 L N46 inline-4 112 kW 200 Nm
| rowspan="2" | **320i** || 1998-2000 || 2.0 L M52 inline-6 ||110
2000-2006 2.2 L M54 inline-6 125 kW 210 Nm
| **323i** || 1998-2000 || 2.5 L M52 inline-6 ||126 kW||245 Nm
| **325i** (EU) || rowspan=2|2001-2006 || rowspan=2| 2.5 L M54
inline-6 ||141 kW||245 Nm
| **325i** (US) || 137 kW||237 Nm
| **328ci** || 1998-2000 || 2.8 L M52 inline-6 ||143 kW||280 Nm
| **330ci** (EU) || rowspan=2|2000-2006 || rowspan=3| 3.0 L M54
inline-6 ||172 kW||300 Nm
| **330i** (US) || 168 kW||290 Nm
| **330i ZHP** || 2003-2006 ||175 kW||301 Nm
| **M3** (EU) || rowspan=2| 2000-2006 || rowspan=3| 3.2 L S54
inline-6 ||254 kW||365 Nm
| **M3** (US) ||248 kW||355 Nm
| **M3 CSL** || 2003-2004 ||265 kW||370 Nm
Model !! Years !! Engine !! Power !! Torque
| rowspan=2| **318d** || 2001-2003 || 2.0 L M47 inline-4||85
2003-2005 2.0 L M47 inline-4 85 kW 280 Nm
| rowspan="2" | **320d** || 1998-2001 || 2.0 L M47 inline-4 ||100
2001-2006 2.0 L M47 inline-4 110 kW 330 Nm
| rowspan=2| **330d** || 1999-2002 || 3.0 L M57 inline-6 ||135
2003-2005 3.0 L M57 inline-6 150 kW 410 Nm
* 5-speed ZF S5-39
* 5-speed Getrag 250G
* 5 speed ZF S5-31
* 6-speed ZF S6-37 (330i, 330Ci, 320d, 320Cd)
* 6-speed ZF S6-53 (330d, 330 Cd)
* 6-speed Getrag 420G (M3)
* 4-speed GM 4L30-E (A4S270R)
* 5-speed GM 5L40-E (A5S360R)
* 5-speed GM 5L40-E (A5S390R)
* 5-speed ZF 5HP19 (A5S325Z)
* 5-speed GM 5L50-E (A5S390R)
* 6-speed SMG-II
The body shell of the E46 was claimed by BMW to be 70% more rigid than
its E36 predecessor. Aluminium was used for an increased quantity of
suspension components, in order to decrease unsprung mass. However,
with a curb weight of 1450 kg, the E46 328ci is 55 kg heavier than the
In tune with BMW's core values regarding handling dynamics, the E46
was initially available with a rear-wheel drive layout and a 50/50
The electronic components in the E46 are more integrated than previous
generations of 3 Series, including the use of a CAN bus system.
Drivetrain information (such as engine, transmission and stability
control) is communicated using the CAN bus. Vehicle electronics (such
as the radio, navigation, television and telecommunications) can
communicate to each other via the K-bus.
The E46 M3, first introduced in October 2000, was available with the
3.2-litre S54 M-tuned engine. It was available in coupé and
convertible body styles.
The M3's S54 engine has a redline of 8,000 rpm. As with most M
engines, the S54 has 6 individual throttle bodies, in this case
electronically operated (drive-by-wire throttle). The transmission
options for the M3 were a 6-speed manual or the 6-speed "SMG-II"
automated manual transmission.
M3 GTR road car
In order for the M3 GTR race car to compete in the American Le Mans
Series, BMW produced 10 examples of the "M3 GTR Straßen Version"
(street version) in 2001. As per the race M3 GTR, the roadgoing
Version was powered by the BMW P60B40 4.0 L V8 engine which was
slightly detuned and generated a maximum power output of 380 hp at
7,000 rpm. Power was delivered to the rear wheels via a race type
6-speed dual clutch sequential transmission with M locking
differential. The engine featured dry sump lubrication as its racing
counterpart and bigger radiators.
The stiffer chassis and suspension system were a carryover from the
race version. The car was lowered further than a standard M3 and
featured additional strut braces between the firewall and strut towers
as well as between the right shock towers. The redesigned front and
rear fascias and the rear wing optimised aerodynamics.
The roof, the hood, the rear wing and front and rear fascias were made
from carbon-fibre in order to reduce weight. Notable changes made to
the interior included leather Recaro bucket seats, removal of rear
seats and special M3 GTR sill plates.
The Alpina "B3 3.3" and "B3 S" were based on the E46 and were powered
by inline-six petrol engines.
The hatchback version was marketed as the BMW 3 Series Compact.
Performance package (ZHP)
The Performance Package was an option sold in North America, which is
commonly referred to by its order code in the United States, ZHP (the
order code in Canada was ZAM). It was available for 330i sedans from
model years 2003 to 2005, and available for 330ci coupés and
convertibles from 2004 to 2006. It included various aesthetic changes
over the regular 3 series, as well as functional and mechanical
The ZHP was equipped with sportier camshafts and revised engine tuning
to increase power output from 225-235 hp as well as a shorter final
drive gear ratio, and a corresponding increase in redline from 6,500
rpm to 6,800 rpm. Suspension was modified over the standard suspension
with firmer springs and dampers, larger anti-roll bars, stronger front
control arm ball joints, a lower ride height, heavy duty steering
rack, and slightly more negative camber. 'Car and Driver' magazine
track-tested the car, which recorded a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) acceleration
time of 5.6 seconds and a 1/4 mile time of 14.3 seconds.
In some parts of the United States, BMW sold a version of the 325i
which met the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) emissions
standards. California, New York, and Massachusetts received the SULEV
E46's in 2003, and Vermont in 2004. They utilised a variant of the M54
engine named the BMW M56. The M56 meets SULEV standards, as well as
partial zero emission vehicle (PZEV) and zero evaporative emissions
requirements. The M56 is claimed to have identical power output as its
* Electronic Stability Control ("Dynamic Stability Control")
introduced, replacing the previous ASC+T traction control system.
* Manual shift mode ("Steptronic") added to automatic transmissions
2001 facelift (LCI)
In September 2001, the facelift (LCI) versions of the sedan and
Touring were released for the 2002 model year.
* 325i (M54 engine) replaces 323i (M52TU engine).
* 330i (M54 engine) replaces 328i (M52TU engine).
* 318d, 320d engine upgraded from M47 to M47TU.
* Display for navigation system upgraded to widescreen.
* Sedan and Touring receive revised headlights, tail-lights, grille,
hood, front fenders and front bumpers.
* Single Xenon headlights for 2001 and in 2002 Xenon were installed
for high-beam lamps; Bi-Xenon headlights for 2002.
File:1998-2001 BMW 328i sedan.jpg| pre-facelift sedan
File:1998-2001 BMW 328i (E46) sedan (2011-07-17) 02.jpg | pre-facelift
File:2001-2005 BMW 318i (E46) sedan 01.jpg | facelift sedan
File:2001-2005 BMW 318i (E46) sedan 02.jpg | facelift sedan
In March 2003, the facelift (LCI) versions of the coupe and
convertible models (except M3) were released for the 2004 model year.
* Navigation system upgraded to Mark IV version, which is DVD-based.
* Auxiliary input for sound system becomes available.
* SULEV engine option (M56) becomes available for 325 models with
* Manual transmission for 330 models upgraded from 5-speed to 6-speed.
* Coupes and convertibles receive revised headlights, tail-lights
(LED), grille, hood and front bumper.
* Adaptive headlights available for coupe and convertible models
* 330d engine upgraded from M57 to M57TU.
File:2004 BMW 325Ci (E46 MY04) coupe (2015-07-24) 01
(cropped).jpg|facelift coupe (front)
File:2004 BMW 325Ci (E46 MY04) coupe (2015-07-24) 02.jpg|facelift
File:2000-2003 BMW 320Ci (E46) coupe 01.jpg|pre-facelift coupe (front)
File:2000-2003 BMW 320Ci (E46) coupe 02.jpg|pre-facelift coupe (rear)
Production and sales
Production dates for each body style are as follows:
* Sedans were produced from December 1997 to May 2005
* Coupés were produced from December 1998 to May 2006
* Convertibles were produced from December 1999 to November 2006
* Wagons were produced from January 1999 to May 2005
* Hatchbacks were produced from April 2000 to December 2004
The E46 was produced in Germany (Leipzig, Munich and Regensburg) and
in South Africa (Rosslyn). Local assembly of complete knock-down (CKD)
kits was used for cars sold in China, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Mexico, Thailandand Russia.
The highest selling year for the E46 chassis was 2002, when 561,249
vehicles were sold worldwide.
Andy Priaulx won the 2004 European Touring Car Championship season and
2005 World Touring Car Championship season championships driving a
320i. Franz Engstler won the 2006 Asian Touring Car Championship
season in a 320i.
The E46 has also competed in the British, European and Russian touring
2003 European Touring Car Championship 3
2004 Danish Touringcar Championship 1
2004 European Touring Car Championship 1
2005 Danish Touringcar Championship 1
2005 Italian Superturismo Championship 1
2005 World Touring Car Championship 1
2006 Asian Touring Car Championship 1
2006 British Touring Car Championship 11
2008 European Touring Car Cup 1
In the United States, the National Auto Sport Association and BMW Car
Club of America (BMW CCA) have organized a "Spec E46" amateur racing
series. The Spec E46 cars are built to a standard with limited
modifications, to create a level playing field and increased
competition between drivers. By mid-2020, Spec E46 had become one of
BMW CCA's three largest racing classes.
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Original Article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMW 3 Series (E46)